It is fascinating how the history of video games tends to be skewed towards the USA. Still today it is easy to come across articles – written by Italians of all people – that keep on mentioning the “console wars” in the 90s or the “great video game crash of 1983”.
And yet, all of this has never happened in Europe, let alone in Italy.
The argument that events like the Great Crash could have been felt all over the world is fair but misleading at best.
In the late 80s, Sega was the first Japanese company that managed to establish a sizeable following in the old continent, along with impressive sales volumes. They accomplished this thanks to massive marketing campaigns for their 8-bit console, the Master System, and through agreements with companies like Virgin Mastertronic.
While Sega fought harshly against Nintendo in the US, it found little to no competition in Europe where home computers occupied a different market segment altogether while other consoles – like the Atari 7800 and Mattel’s Intellivision – were confined to a niche.
As for the “console war”, in Europe it was deemed illegal to make references to other companies in advertisement all throughout the 80s and 90s. Thus, there was no chance to see a “Sega does what Nintendon’t” commercial or anything like that. The only possible console war in that decade could have been between kids arguing whether PlayStation was better than Nintendo 64, and even that quarrel didn’t last long.
Back to Italy: in the 90s the country turned out to be Sega’s proverbial Land of Toys, if we were to reference Pinocchio (and we’ll see how fitting that reference is in this untold tale of marketing decisions). It was the partnership with a smart and market-savvy Italian distributor that kick-started the love affair between Sega and Italians, but the alliance proved to be a less than wise choice in the long run.
It all started with one single coin
Before home consoles… there were the arcades, where Sega also reigned supreme.
Originally, distribution of coin-ops in Italy was handled by Elettronolo, a company based in Firenze (Florence) and managed by Tiziano Fagioli. News on that front are unfortunately pretty scarce.
From 1993 onwards it was handled by Tecnoplay, a company that was (and still is) based in San Marino, a microstate within Italian territory. Its current CEO, Mauro Zaccaria, was kind enough to answer some of my questions, and he told me that his father Marino Zaccaria, the company’s founder, had been entertaining business relationships with many pezzonovanta involved in the games industry since the 70s.
It’s through these connections that Tecnoplay initially got in touch with Mario Cotza, Managing Director and President of Sega of Europe’s Amusements division, fully dedicated to arcades. Cotza became the man behind SEGA’s strong bond with Tecnoplay, which by 1993 was already distributing slot machines and pinballs (by Sega Pinball, formerly Data East).
Every year – Mauro tells me – an impressive amount of coin-op titles by Sega hit arcades and bars, up until 2005. Mauro was a fan of Virtua Fighter and he shrugs when he mentions that it was a game that saw little to no success in Italy because of Tekken’s fierce competion.
On the other hand, a lesser known coin-op title like World Club Champion Football was one of Sega’s greatest hits in Italy and Japan, while being mostly ignored in the rest of Europe and the US.
Mauro also fondly recalls when the japanese company contacted them while developing the sequel to House of the Dead. Tecnoplay and Sega together scouted locations to be featured in the game, in Firenze, Bologna and Venezia (Venice).
Something similar happened with the sequel to Sega Rally, with the Japanese company inviting the Italian distributor to join them in Montecarlo for a trip on a rally car.
Sega was king of the world back then.
Research about the first companies that handled consoles in Italy yields some interesting news.
Melchioni, a brand known to Italians for having already distributed Atari consoles, was the one behind the SC-3000 home computer arriving on the Italian shores, but in their case it was just a one-time-only deal. The company had allocated a pretty rich advertising budget for the Sega computer but, fate intervened: a fire ended up destroying a warehouse full of expensive Philishave razors.
In the end, the budget for Sega vanished in a puff of smoke (well, literally) and the distribution ended up being very limited, in the realm of a few hundreds units sold.
Melchioni – apparently – never distributed another Sega or videogame product again.
Another company, called “NBC Italia” – no relation with the Universal company – handled Italian distribution of the Master System from 1986 to 1988. NBC imported the console, translated the manual and simply released the console as it was, never even bothering to shoot a TV commercial. They apparently just dubbed in Italian an international commercial. To the extent of my knowledge, they didn’t even put their logo on the box like other Italian brands were doing, no actual “NBC SEGA Master Systems” seems to have existed.
How they were planning, in 1987, to sell a console with no advertising shall forever remain a mystery.
A new challenger approaches!
The Japanese company was, understandably, unhappy with the less-than-ambitious NBC Italia and soon moved to a more experienced partner: Giochi Preziosi.
Giochi Preziosi is the creation of Enrico Preziosi, a self-made businessman born in Salerno, a town in Southern Italy. Preziosi had first worked at Philips in the 70s and subsequently, in 1978 created his company in his own garage (according to Italian Wikipedia), importing toys from China and selling them in and around Milano. The company name is a play on words which can be read both as “Toys by Preziosi” or “Precious Toys”.
Surprisingly, less than ten years later, Giochi Preziosi was a force to be reckoned with, officially distributing the most important toys of the 80s and 90s, like Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Power Rangers and, later, Pokemon.
The big break for GP arrived when Silvio Berlusconi single-handedly created for Italy the “Tv per ragazzi” (kids TV), dedicated TV programming that occupied many children’s afternoons.
At the time, in 1984, only GiG had the financial prowess to produce enough TV commercials to fill three different channels’ worth of kids’ shows and cartoons.
Exactly how Preziosi’s company ended up having as much space on television as GiG did is pretty unclear. Someone from GiG speculated that probably Berlusconi and Enrico Preziosi reached an agreement, in order to keep the market balanced between two big companies.
But, again, mere speculation; what surely happened, anyway, is that Giochi Preziosi ended up investing an unprecedented amount of money in advertising for Sega. Not only on Berlusconi’s television network, but on others too, as we will see later.
The first videogame-related product that GP handled, lo and behold, was… Nintendo’s Game & Watch.
Years before Mattel and GiG, the Nintendo handhelds were actually being distributed by Preziosi’s company, along with a roman company called OTO. Even though this article focuses on Sega, this 1986 commercial for Nintendo “Game & Watch” well illustrates the evolution of videogame advertising in Italy.
The target audience for handhelds seemed to be the same as with all other children’s toys, even throwing in young girls (girl gamers! What is the world coming to?) into the mix. Also, for some reason, they call Mario Bros “Marios”, perhaps to save time?
It matches with what Giuliano Doccioli – former ad man for GiG, the other main toy company in Italy – was telling me, how Preziosi’s commercials took everyone by surprise.
Their style was a refined “let’s throw everything at the wall to see what sticks”: catchy (stolen) songs, ingenious slogans and quickfire editing.
Back then their commercials were being produced by Diaframma, a marketing studio in Florence, right next to GiG’s own. It seems as though the city of Florence inherently contains some sort of cosmic significance. Almost as if it were the marketing junction point for the entire gaming industry in Italy.
On the other hand, it could just be an amazing coincidence.
Giuliano also recalls how GiG’s owner, Horvat, told him to peruse each second of Preziosi’s commercials in order to find their secret sauce. But – he told me – there really was no sauce at all!
Years later Giuliano had the opportunity to talk with the producer who was behind most of these commercials, the producer replied, in a heavy Florentine accent:
“Secret? What secret? I just wanted to hurry up and shoot the damn things so I could go to lunch!”
Nintendo’s decision to partner with Mattel first and GiG later had definitely something to do with Giochi Preziosi working with Sega already by 1988. With the company being notoriously jealous of their properties, they were keen to avoid all possible mix-up.
By 1990 Preziosi already owned his own chain of toy shops, “Giocheria”, and could count on Berlusconi’s help to sell even more Sega consoles in supermarket chains like Standa (owned by Berlusconi).
That is actually how I ended up buying a bundle edition of the Master System, so-called “Master System 2 Plus”, with a Light Phaser and three bundled in games. Well, four, considering Alex Kidd in Miracle World was already available within the console’s memory.
Not only that, games could be chosen from a wide variety of titles. While I have no recollection of the available titles at the time, I ended up picking Dick Tracy (the movie had just come out), Moonwalker and The Lucky Dime Caper.
I was a Micheal Jackson and Disney fan at the time, who wasn’t?
All in all, decent choices.
Giochi Preziosi & Sega: like bread and butter
*This section of the article was culled together from an interview with Dario Bertè, CEO of Giochi Preziosi and former marketing director for Sega in Italy*
Unhappy with the poor sales and seeing that Nintendo was making their move on the market, Sega decided to step up their game and work with one of the major players in the toys industry.
Giochi Preziosi took over, acquired whatever stock was left from NBC as contractual obligation and immediately started branding everything, adding their own logo and style of packaging.
The direct employer of GP for the Sega line was Shigekazu Hayashi, marketing director for Sega of Europe.
Dario Berté tells me that Mr Hayashi was always very open to experimentation and never made weird demands like Nintendo did with GiG. Then again, Sega had a radically different approach in order to maintain their marketing position as the most successful Japanese company in Europe.
At the time, Sega also sponsored the famous XXXVIII Sega European Grand Prix, a race weekend held at the British circuit of Donington Park on 11th April 1993; Sega had already sponsored the Williams F1 team and threw an incredible amount of money at the event, as pictures from that day clearly show.
By the time the first SEGA commercials were shot, Preziosi was already producing everything in-house by means of their Winter Company studio, based in Milano.
Early Master System commercials weren’t particularly captivating: no weird ideas, no catchy songs either, and nobody got electrocuted in these ads, not even a little. Just a kid playing Sega games and talking directly to the audience with an almost professional demeanor.
The same blonde kid also shows up in other Sega commercials, becoming a sort of familiar face at least until 1991.
I love how abysmal the lip-sync is, the voice actor for the kid is clearly in his thirties and he’s taking a great deal of care in pronuncing each English word “correctly”. That’s some attention to details… for an Italian advert. This was “local TV” kind of bad.
Apparently, not wholly satisfied, Giochi Preziosi decided to go one step beyond and went down the impervious road of celebrity endorsements.
Their first choice was pretty sensible: Walter Zenga. At the time he was the goalkeeper for Italy’s national football team (“soccer” if you’re reading from the US) and a pretty well-known face among children too. In this commercial he shows up right next to our dear blonde kid. Okay, they’re not exactly next to each other, but they tried.
The commercial feels entirely different from the previous one that aired just a year before. The kid now has a vaguely realistic teenager voice and Zenga looks like he’s bored out of his mind, but that’s fair.
The cartridges are still called “cassettes” though, which is strange since even the game manuals called them “cartucce” (cartridges). “Forza Italia” says Zenga at the end, already looking at the not so distant future.
Most importantly, Preziosi are starting to launch their own peculiar promotions: this time there’s a real soccer ball bundled with a videogame console.
In 1990 the soccer World Cup was being played in Italy, of all nations, and it was one of the biggest events of the decade, so it definitely made sense for all the kids to go out and buy the rather mediocre World Soccer game on Master System.
Years later, other soccer players like Roberto Mancini and Gianluigi Lentini would also join the “winning team” and even a road racing cyclist like Gianni Bugno! Bertè tells me all these sportsmen were chosen because the best selling games at the time were sports ones, especially soccer. So it all made perfect sense.
Later commercials even went as far as adopting the slogan “Sega: games for champions”.
If Giochi Preziosi builds it, the Megadrive will come
The Sega Megadrive was launched in Italy in November of 1990, at first only available at Giocheria shops. Then, from January of the following year, everywhere else.
At that time, Berté, interviewed by the Italian magazine K, had this to say:
“Master System is dedicated to kids under 14 years of age, the ones just starting with videogames; Megadrive is going to be for everyone else”.
The reasoning behind this bizarre declaration appears to be that the more primitive the graphics, the more childish the game. That concept hasn’t really aged that well, hasn’t it?
Jokes aside, it was probably nothing more than a way to tease kids into buying the more powerful (and more expensive) console in order not to feel left behind. Reverse psychology of sorts.
On the marketing side, the jump to 16-bit was accompanied by a dramatic shift in advertising budget for Preziosi. From 1991 onwards, the company would dedicate an unprecedented (and probably ever since unmatched) amount of money and time to promote Sega consoles.
This is where we come to the celebrity endorsement to end all endorsements: actor comedian Jerry Calà.
Jerry Calà was, at the time, pretty well-known for his raunchy style of comedy, starring in countless movies filled with naked girls whom he would gawk at with his trademark gestures and catchphrase: “libidine, doppia libidine, libidine coi fiocchi!” (“hubba hubba, hubba hubba plus, hubba hubba with a bow on top!” as the author of blog Doppiaggi italioti kindly adapted in English). The English-speaking world has probably spotted Jerry Calà in the infamous Chicken Park, a 90s schlocky spoof of Jurassic Park which gained international “popularity” in the last decade through YouTube mockery.
Berté is quick to tell me that Calà was chosen because of his popularity with families and kids, along with his surefire way of selling a product thanks to his recognizable catchphrases. This may sound weird in 2020 but, let us not forget this is Sega we’re talking about. I think they were more than happy to let Giochi Preziosi do their thing, as long as that meant more sales.
Why linking a sex-innuendo comedian to a kids product you ask? Well, it’s Italy we’re talking about here. The “libidine!” catchphrase (literally meaning “libido!”) is not in use but still widely recognizable in Italy nowadays, that’s how much we loved it (apparently?).
As you can see the commercials got weirder, abandoning their serious tone and letting Calà free to do his own thing, delivering the two or three nonsensical catchphrases that he was known for, making faces at the camera etc. But that’s not all. With Sonic being such a success in Italy, Giochi Preziosi actually developed a couple of commercials with an animated Sonic who, regrettably, even speaks!
Naturally there is no direct evidence that this is where the Sonic cartoon originated from, but it is surely no coincidence that the blue hedgehog’s first cartoon, so called SatAM, was co-produced by Reteitalia (Berlusconi’s company before Mediaset).
Until 1993, before GiG picked up the pieces and relaunched the Game Boy, the best-selling handheld in Italy probably had been (again no official sales numbers are available) the Sega Game Gear.
The success was probably due to its sleek design and Giochi Preziosi constantly shoving it into Italian kids’ faces! Thinking back to 1991, a console featuring a full-color screen that also allowed one to watch TV was every kid’s dream, it could take away the boredom of visiting grandma.
Apparently, Giochi Preziosi really bargained on Italian children wanting to watch television on the console, since they pushed the TV tuner accessory more than the games themselves. This wasn’t an outlandish idea, considering that back in 1992 not all kids had a dedicated television in their rooms.
Naturally, this was a dream that came with a hefty price tag: it costed almost double the price of a Game Boy, something along the lines of 260 in today’s euros or dollars.
But even still, Game Gear had a clear advantage on the Game Boy: like a classic Hollywood actor or, perhaps more appropriately, a Eighties US President… it’s gotta look good on television.
Game Boy was difficult to show properly because of its black and white screen, hence it ended up being rarely featured and shown on TV.
The commercials picked up on it quickly, showing how good the screen looked, while in reality it wasn’t that simple to watch TV on that small handheld console stuck on a 160×146 resolution.
Nonetheless, Bertè tells me it sold well and remained one of Sega’s biggest successes in Italy up until the mid 90s.
The same fate, naturally, wasn’t shared by the Sega Pico, a little known educational video game console that was also marketed in Italy but never made much of a dent saleswise.
Our dear Jerry was also involved in what probably is the most (in)famous Giochi Preziosi promotional stunt that you might have heard about…
The Sonic badge, or “baydge” as the commercials affectionately called it, was a pin badge bundled in with several Sega products. During Christmas of ’92, the pin gave buyers the chance to… well, win a Megadrive. Or an unrelated Karaoke machine. Why would one buy a Sega Megadrive to win another?
Well, the badge was also gifted to any kid buying three Sega “cassettes”, a Master System or, finally a Game Gear AND a TV Tuner. Maybe it made sense for those Master System owners who wanted to upgrade to 16-bit? Even though the total price of three Master System games wouldn’t be very far from that of an actual Megadrive…
As this commercial reminds us, all kinds of Sega “cassettes” could be won by participating in the contest; it was never clear which titles were up for grabs, though. Could you pick your titles? Would they be picked for you?
Other commercials showed how it all worked: by flicking a switch on the back of the badge, a “TV mode” could be activated so that while watching TV the badge would light up and play a terrible rendition of Sonic’s theme. This meant that “YOU WON!” and could call in to claim the prize(s). But, it is highly doubtful that any kid ever won anything, and after browsing page after page of old Sega forums nothing has turned up, even after all these years.
The contest was not only weirdly convoluted, even by Preziosi’s standards, but also incredibly expensive to run. Still, it makes perfect sense if one thinks about it: it was an elaborate attempt (some on the forums say “scam”) to get children to tune in regularly to Berlusconi’s kids programmes during the afternoon and even stay put during commercials. Thus killing two birds with one stone: selling Preziosi’s Sega consoles well before Christmas and keeping kids glued to Berlusconi’s TV.
Berté tells me that the badge contest was short-lived; GP was cited for, you guessed it, fraud and unfair competition, having to quickly withdraw the competition. He tells me “their competitor is probably to blame”, even though it is unclear if he is referring to GiG.
A fair amount of Sonic badges remained unsold and it’s not uncommon to find them on eBay.
But, weirdly enough, Jerry isn’t the only connection between mediocre Italian comedic actors and Sega. In the 1998 movie “Cucciolo”, a sort of bad take on the Robin Williams’ movie Jack (as if Jack wasn’t bad enough on its own), another notorious Italian actor, Massimo Boldi, demands to be taken to SegaWorld, the now-defunct indoor theme housed within the Trocadero complex in London, UK.
Here’s a few stills from the very long montage featuring the then 43-years-old Boldi pretending to play Sega games and crazily shouting “SEGA WORLD! SEGA WORLD!”
Usa Today: not a newspaper, rather a TV show
An interesting chapter in the history of Giochi Preziosi (and Sega) is how they ended up producing the first TV show about videogames to ever be ever broadcast on Italian television, and, probably, also the last.
The program was called Usa Today, an infotainment show first produced by the Odeon television network and, later, by Preziosi’s company.
I’ve reached out to former host and creator Stefano Gallarini, who kindly answered my questions while travelling on a subway train.
The show was originally conceived by network producer Stefano Tabarelli who, on advice of his son (an avid gamer), made a phone call to Xenia, which at the time was publishing the best-selling videogame magazines.
Gallarini, then editor for The Games Machine and Consolemania magazines, among others, answered the call. Tabarelli told him he needed someone to host the short section of the show about videogames. Gallarini was interested but soon realized he would be the only one to answer the casting call. Most of the staff at the time were “nerdy kids”, he recalls with a laugh, “at the time, there was no way nerds wanted to talk about games, they just wanted to play them!“.
Stefano had already worked on television and theater, so he had the right amount of guts and charisma.
Even though there was already a host, the producer insisted on Gallarini actually running the whole show by himself.
The show ran approximately from 1991 to 1995, with Gallarini hosting it until 1993.
In the first edition (shown above), Marco Auletta – another editor for TGM – was also brought on board, clearly showing the reason why an average “nerd” could never really host a program.
Usa Today was a program about “what’s going on in the United States today” – hence the name – it also focused on sports (skateboarding, windsurfing, etc), music and movies.
He tells me he never used a script: improvising was the name of the game. He would actually record a whole week’s worth of shows in the space of a single morning.
Naturally he had all the necessary information to do it, all coming straight from The Games Machine and Consolemania‘s editorial staff.
Then, Giochi Preziosi happened.
Gallarini recalls that things happened fast, with people being ushered in to be his co-hosts and (Berlusconi’s) Reteitalia working behind the scenes.
The shift is clearly noticeable even without subtitles: the videogame segment switched from talking about Amiga and PC to being exclusively focused on Sega consoles.
Basically nothing more than a long advertisment for the company, along with terrible in-jokes and puns between the two co-hosts that went completely over my head as a 8 year old child.
Definitely a “Youtube before Youtube” kind of deal, as Stefano called it.
I’ve been meaning to ask Stefano why Giochi Preziosi needed so much advertising space for Sega: they already had three channels almost fully dedicated to it.
Stefano says he never really had any direct contact with anyone from the company, but says he never had much pressure to talk about any specific game. Even though abandoning the other platforms was mandatory, he still retained relative freedom on what to talk about.
Then, in 1994, Stefano went to work for Berlusconi’s Mediaset and Usa Today died soon after. Still, he affirms he never gave up on trying to make programs about videogames, but could never gather enough interest around such a project. Even as late as two years ago, there was a last attempt with Discovery Channel but, in the end, nothing came to fruition.
Nowadays Stefano works in radio and has his own YouTube channel where he talks, of course, about games. He says he’s got way more time to play videogames now than back in 1992.
By 1994 things for Sega began to shift for the worse.
Their attempts to market the Mega CD and 32X in Italy were pretty much ignored by the general public, I’ve never even seen them being sold in shops, nor met anyone who owned it.
I remember clearly their previous commercials with Calà and Zenga, but don’t remember seeing anything about the MegaCD.
Then again, the infamous CD add-on was priced at what would today equate to roughly 600 euros or dollars, a crazy sum to spend on a gaming console with such a limited selection of titles available. And by parents standards: you had your SEGA console for Christmas back in 1992? Well, you were sorted for life, mister. Even more so if it’s Italian parents we’re talking about. The dolce vita spending power was rock bottom during that decade.
Super Nintendo was also doing fine, thanks to great marketing support by GiG, and Giochi Preziosi were finally left behind in the race against their competitor, at least in the videogame market.
With Playstation hitting stores in 1995, things got even worse.
In the summer of that same year, the Sega Saturn was released in Italy, receiving moderate support by Giochi Preziosi, this meant that did the bare minimum to advertise it, and got minimum results too.
Sega had no hope to ever going back to the glory days of Christmas 1992.
A random opening jingle suited for a news broadcast and stock gameplay footage is all they had. Everything is pretty much dull and uninspired. “Here’s the console kids, buy it”, way of thinking. The Giochi Preziosi company’s name and logo are only briefly shown but not even mentioned: by that time, they probably had realized the kids didn’t care anymore.
Saturn at launch was also fairly expensive, costing close to 600 in today’s Euros or Dollars. Try get your parents to buy you THAT in 1995!
That same year Shigeru Hayashi also left Sega of Europe, and the relationship between the two companies (Sega and GP) began to deteriorate. On this matter Berté doesn’t seem (or want) to remember much, but he does confirm that Preziosi started cutting the budget for Sega’s marketing after 1995.
Clearly, the company didn’t even want to try to fight against Playstation’s out-of-this-world commercials. GiG at least tried, as ridiculous as their attempts were, Preziosi lost interest and just seemed content in making generic and plain advertising.
Dreamcast and the end of Sega
The Dreamcast in Italy seemed to suffer an even worse fate. Researching on those last few years between 1998 and 2001 yields even less news than 1986.
In 1998, Giochi Preziosi and Sega were in the final days of their agreement: the European commercials were translated and imported to Italy but, apparently, never broadcast. Bigben Interactive, distributor of the 128bit console in UK, France and Germany, apparently stepped in at the last moment, but by 2000 it was already too late.
Still, Dreamcast managed to enjoy a brief moment of success in Italy, thanks in large part to the still strong Sega fanbase and due to some distribution problems in the early days of PlayStation 2.
Curiously enough, the Sega Dreamcast shares one bit of trivia with the Nintendo story previously told: in fact, the Dreamcast also appeared on an Italian soccer team’s shirt. The deal, obviously, didn’t came from Giochi Preziosi, who at the time had already given up on the Dreamcast, it was a direct sponsorship between the Sampdoria team and Sega of Europe that also involved other important European soccer teams like Arsenal, Deportivo de la Coruña and St.Etienne.
Comparing it to “GiG Nintendo” as the jersey sponsor for Fiorentina, it is curious to note how the Sampdoria shirt doesn’t show the company name, but only “Dreamcast”, in a desperate attempt by SoE to improve sales of the console.
As history proved, that hardly made a difference and only lasted for a single season: by 2001 the Dreamcast had bit the dust and SEGA left the console market for good.
As an Italian and a Sega fan myself, even though the Sega Master System was my only console as a child, research for this article felt like taking a dive into a deep pool of repressed memories.
It is strange to realize how Sega’s history is closely connected to Berlusconi’s, especially back when he hadn’t yet stepped into politics and was still “just” a business mogul that controlled half of the Italian TV networks.
On one hand, Sega obviously profited from the huge advertising budgets of the early 90s. On the other, they became victims of overexposure. When Nintendo and GiG finally took off, after 1993, it really did feel like a breath of fresh air for players.
Naturally, Giochi Preziosi is not to blame for Saturn being a relative failure and the Dreamcast launch being so muddled, it pretty much reflects what was happening with Sega worldwide, still it is kind of sad to see how quickly Sega fell from grace. Nonetheless, Sega’s Italian fanbase remains strong to this day, not afraid of making its voice heard and forever hoping that Sega will one day make a comeback into the home console realm.
Well, let’s hope that – looky-looky – it will be a Giochi Preziosi exclusive.
Many thanks to Giuliano Doccioli, Stefano Gallarini and Mauro Zaccaria for their time and for providing unpublished information about Sega in Italy. Also thanks to Dario Bertè for the information provided and to Andrea Pachetti for the helpful info and collaboration.